Amity-Enmity Patterns in Central Asia
This paper examines «the amity-enmity pattern» among the states in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan) by content analysis. The amity-enmity pattern reflects the ideational theoretical view of Regional Security Complex Thoery of B. Buzan that it defines the kind of roles (enemy/rival/friend) the states in the region internalise and developes it into a spectrum of conflict formations (enemy), security regimes (rival), security communities (friend), respectively. The conceptualization was further advanced by K. Oskanian into six categories: Revisionist/Status-quo conflict formation (enemy), Thin/Thick security regime (rival), Loose/Tight security community (friend). This paper aims to position the Central Asian subcomplex on the six categories of the amity-enmity pattern. First part of the paper defines the analytical and methodological frameworks for «the amity- enmity pattern» in the Central Asian subcomplex, a subcomplex in the unipolar Russia-centered Regional Security Complex. The second part attempts to analyze the amity-enmity pattern of the subcomplex through content analysis, examining 30455 news articles published in Central Asian states for the last 10 years (from January 2007 to December 2016). Steps of the analysis follows the scheme of «Structurization of information array for qualitative content analysis» by K. Borishpolets. At the level «A» of analysis, the number of news sources were categorized into three text blocks: 1) inter-state level of articles, 2) inter-regional level of articles 3) domestic articles. At the level «B» of analysis, the inter-state level of articles are further classified and total six topics have resulted by frequencies: 1) Integration issues 2) Energy(gas, oil, water) issues 3) Border/territory issues 4) Drug trafficking/criminal issues 5) Radical islam issues 6) Immigration issues. At the level «C» of analysis, the amity/enmity features on each topic are examined and based on the results, this paper concludes that the formation of security culture and the role that the actors play in the Central Asian subcomplex can be defined as Lockean rivalry positioned at the range from 'Thin security regime' to 'Thick security regime'.
Central Asia; amity-enmity patter; content analysis; security regime; Regional Security Complex Theory.
Authors: Hyunjung Kim
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